The Saraswats of India

BHUMIHAR BRAHMINS (164 castes):

The Bhumihar are Bramhakshatra division of Saraswats and are found not only in the Punjab but also in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh. They are also called Gautama and Thakur in Banaras. There are two sections among them (1) Mohiyal section from Punjab (2) Jujhotia section from Bhundhelkhand region. Bhumihars are generally peasants and land lords. Gorak Rai Vaid a Saraswat was the chief of Bhatneer and died in the battle for Prathviraj Chauhan, according to Mohiyals history, Ganeshdev, son of Gorak Rai Vaid subsequently established the state of Bettaiah Raj, as the Dynasty of the “JAITHARIYAS” a sect of Bhumihar Brahmins.

Taga /Tyagi Brahmins

1) Taga/ Tyagi  2) Audi Gaud / Palliwal/ Gaur Brahmin 3) Pachori 4) Gautama

Origins of surname were found in a split between the Tyagis and the Bhumihars. Parashurama requested that the Bhumihars renounce all future bhiksha and impart religious function without donation, in turn devoted to agriculture in Northern India. Those that obeyed were given the surname TYAGI to commemorate their sacrifice. Taga (Tyagi): Brahmins of Punjab, who belong to Bramha Kshatra division of Saraswat Brahmins, are generally cultivators. They are found principally on the bank of Saraswati river near Thanesar and are called Taga of Gaud Tagas or (Gaur Brahmins of Haryana) (Tyagi is the synonym for Bhumihar Brahmins). The Gaur Brahmins have their origin in Haryana are also called Gaud Tagas. Those Brahmins who were identified by king Janmejaya in his Yajna and settle in the Adi Gaud region. They have two divisions thereof Shaharanpur district, who have taken agriculture, and those of Haridwar who are known as Panda (Thiratwal Tyagi) and perform death rites. The Gaur Brahmins are Vaishnavas and worship all gods.

Baidya/ Patit Brahmins

Pannini Sutra says Vaidyas or Baidya means one who studied the Vedas. There are reference to Brahmins who after becoming conversant with Vedas, studied ayurveda and become baidya or physician. From the banks of river Saraswati were one branch of Baidyas who went to South and another to Bengal. Bengal was outside of the Aryavarta for several years. Those Baidyas going there were declared Bharista/ Patit (Condemned and Depressed). Saraswat Brahmins had titles like Dash Sharma and Sen Sharma in Bengal. Many Baidyas did not change their Sharma title till today. Ex: Konkana Sen Sharma. The Sena of Bengal ruled through eleventh and twelfth century. They were called Bramha Kshatra division of Saraswat  Brahmins (those who were Brahmins first and become Kshatriya later). As evidenced through their surname which is derived from Sanskrit, for army. According to Ramakanthdas, who in Baidyakula Panjika wrote details about Baidyas, whose forefathers used to live along the banks of Saraswati river and practiced various forms of medicine, astronomy etc. The Sena rulers of Bengal were descendents of Veerasena (A General of Chola) Chandra/Lunar dynasty of Karnataka. Among Baidya, there are Rarhi, Barendra Bangsaja divisions, synonyms Siddha /Kulin, Sadhya / Bangsaj, Kastha /Maulik. The Baidyas retained among their Group Raja and Maharaja and powerful Zamindars (Landlords)

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